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The term "lemma" refers to a particular form of a word that is chosen by convention to represent the "lexeme" - the collection of all the forms of a word, which share the same meaning. Sometimes, it is referred to as the "canonical form", "citation word" or "headword", and perhaps even "the base word" or the "root". It is often the word you find as a dictionary entry when looking up a definition. Take for example the verb "go" - "go" is the lemma, but the following words are part of its overall lexeme: "going", "goes", "gone", "went", etc.
In this context, a "form" is referring to the internal structure of a specific word; it is the combination of a word's lemma plus its specific parsing. Here is an example from English: consider the word "books". "Books" is our specific example of a form, built on the lemma "book" plus the letter "s", which English uses to indicate a plural form. In a highly inflected language like Greek, knowing the form is essential to deciphering the function of a word in its context.
Morphology is the branch of linguistics that studies the internal structure of words. It looks at patterns of word-formation within and across languages, and attempts to formulate rules that model the knowledge of the speakers of those languages. As applied to New Testament Greek, it is the discipline that allows a student to determine what role a specific word plays in a sentence. For example, a word's morphology will allow you to decipher whether a noun is singular or plural, whether it is the Subject, Direct Object, or the Indirect Object in the sentence, and so on.